Git Advanced Learning:

Course link:

#Navigate the commit tree

Tree-ish architecture

SHA-1 hash

HEAD pointer reference



Branch reference
Tag reference

Some common commands:

git log

git show commit_hash

Reference to a commit






git show HEAD^






git show HEAD^^

Ancestry(Great grandparents):





git show HEAD^^^


git ls-tree HEAD

git ls-tree HEAD^

git ls-tree HEAD assets

git ls-tree HEAD assets/

git log -3

git log –since=2019-01-01

git log –until=2019-01-01

git log –after=2.weeks –before =3.days

git log –author=”Zaki”

git log –grep=”Initial”

git log –grep=”bug”

git log commit_hash…HEAD

git log SHA..SHA

git log explorers.html

Format the commit log:

git log -p

git log –stat

git log –format=medium
git log –format=short

git log –format=oneline

–format=(can many things)

raw etc.

git log –oneline

git log –graph

git log –graph –all –oneline –decorate

Create branch:

git branch new_feature

git branch

cat .git/HEAD
output: ref:refs/heads/master

ls -la .git/refs/heads

cat .git/refs/heads/master

cat .git/refs/heads/new_feature

Switch branches:

git branch
git checkout new_feature
git branch
cat .git/HEAD
output: ref: refs/heads/new_feature

git status

git commit -am “Modifies title of index.html”
-a for all changes in directory, m for messages

git log –oneline

git help log

git checkout master

git branch shorten_title

git checkout -b shorten_title

Without commiting you can not switch to another branch. There will be conflict.

Then thre options:

  1. Commit the changes to the current branch
  2. Remove the changes checkout the file again
  3. Stash the changes

Compare branches:

git diff master..new_feature
git diff new_feature..shorten_title
git diff shorten_title..new_feature

git branch

git checkout new_feature

git branch – -merged master lists branches merged into master

git branch – -merged = lists branches merged into HEAD

git branch – -no-merged = lists branches that have not been merged

Change branch name:

git help branch

git branch -m seo_title

Delete branches

git branch -d branch_to_delete (From other branch)

git branch -D delete_hobe

Reset Types

To move HEAD to a specific commit
Make the project look like it did back then
Types: Soft, Mixed, Hard
Soft: git reset –soft <tree-ish>
Mixed: git reset –mixed <tree-ish>
Hard: git reset –hard <tree-ish>

tree-ish= SHA/branch name

If we do that previous commit will be discarded

git checkout -b reset_branch shorten_title

git reset –soft HEAD^
git log –oneline -3
git status

git commit -m “Edit again”
git log –oneline -3
git show HASH

git reset –mixed HEAD^

git status

Git Merge
One branch to another

git branch
git checkout main
git diff main..seo_title

git branch –merged
git merge seo_title

always run merge with clean working directory

git log –graph –all –oneline –decorate

Strategies to reduce conflicts:

Keep lines short
Keep commits small and focused
Beware stray edits to whitespace (spaces, tabs, line returns)
Merge often


git stash list
git stash show -p stash@{0}

Git Learning: 10.08.2023

SHA-1 hash
minimum 4-8

HEAD pointer reference
git show HEAD
git ref/head/master

Ancestry Parents ->
git show HEAD^

ancestry granparents ->
git show HEAD^^

git show HEAD~3

blob= binary large object
tree is directory
git ls-tree HEAD
git ls-tree HEAD IOT_final_project/

git log -3

Git Stash(Something like drawer)

Save changes in stash:
git stash save “temp”
we can make any name to temp to find it later

git help stash command to see what options are available for stash
git stash does not keep untracked files for that need to check gitsh stash help

git stash -u or git stash –include-unteacked

View stashed change:
git stash list
stash@{0}: WIP on main: 6d50117 IOT Project with RIOT Application and MQTT Publisher Client

git stash show stash@{0}

Retrieve stashed changes:
stash is available all of the branches
git stash pop (as only one stash was there)

but if many stash
git stash pop stash@{0}

git stash list (it will not show now) as it is already back
git stash save “changed”
git stash apply

Clear git stash:
git stash drop stash@{0} (newest item is 0 and older is 1)
git stash list
git status

git stash clear (clear all item in stash

Setup a github account:

Setup a folder ready to push to remote

git remote
git remote add origin https://jj.git

git remote
git remote -v

cat .git/config
git remote rm origin
git remote
git remote add origin http://dh.git

git branches
git checkout master

git push -u origin master (create a branch in remote name master)
git branch -r (show remote branches)
git branch -a (show all kind of branches)

inside git folder
ls -la .git/refs/remotes

cat .git/refs/remotes/origin/master (it is a pointer that points to a tip)

Clone a remote repository

cd ..
git clone https//uuf.git lynda_version
git branch -r

Track remote branch

cat .git/config
check the file to track

-u is for unteacked files

git branch non_tracking
git push origin non_tracking

git branch -u origin/non_tracking non_tracking
cat .git/config

git branch –unset-upstream non_tracking

Push changes to remote

git commit -am “Fix a bug in the login functionality Test Msg”

git diff origin/master..master

git diff –color-words HEAD..master
–color-words: This option tells Git to display the differences at the word level and use color to highlight the changes. Words that were added will typically be displayed in one color (often green), and words that were removed will be displayed in another color (often red).

Git learning by me :

git revert HEAD~1

HEAD~1: This references the commit immediately before the current HEAD. HEAD typically points to the most recent commit on the current branch, and HEAD~1 refers to the commit just before that.

When you run git revert HEAD~1, Git will create a new commit that contains changes that reverse the modifications made in the most recent commit (HEAD~1). This is useful when you want to undo a previous commit but still keep a record of the fact that you reversed those changes.

After running the command, Git will open your default text editor (usually Vim or Nano) for you to enter a commit message describing the purpose of the revert. Once you save and close the commit message, Git will create a new commit that effectively undoes the changes from the previous commit, and your branch will be updated accordingly.

This is a safer way to undo changes than using a hard reset (git reset –hard) because it preserves the commit history and is less likely to cause data loss.

git reset –soft HEAD~2

git reset: This command is used to reset the branch to a specific commit or point in history.
–soft: This option specifies a “soft” reset, which means that Git will move the branch pointer to the specified commit, but it won’t modify your working directory or staging area. Your changes will remain staged and ready to be committed again.
HEAD~2: This is the commit reference to which you want to reset the branch. HEAD~2 refers to the commit two steps back from the current HEAD commit. So, you’ll effectively move your branch back by two commits.

Fetch changes:
Fetch before wou working
Fetch before you push
Fetch before you go offline
Fetch often

git fetch vs git pull:

git fetch and git pull are both Git commands used to update your local repository with changes from a remote repository, but they work differently.

git pull = git fetch + merge

Merged in fetched changes:
git checkout master
Fast forward
git merge test-branch-from-local

Non fast forward:
git merge –no-ff test-branch-from-local
git fetch
git merge r

Check out remote branches:
git branch -r
git branch non_tracking (automatically create based on master)
git branch non_tracking origin/non_tracking(but i want to create something else which is not from master obviously)

check status:
git log –oneline -5 non_tracking

cat .git/config

To delete:
git branch -d non_tracking

git branch -b non_tracking origin/non_tracking(create branch and checkout directly)

git checkout master

To avoid git merge conflict/if git rejects it: The workflow could be like:
git fetch->git merge-> git push

Delete a remote branch(do with caution): It is needful when a feature branch is complete and merged
Remove a branch from the remote repository
git branch -r
git push origin :non_tracking (delete in remote)
git branch (still in local but removed in remote)

git push origin –delete non_tracking (delete in remote)

Contribute in opensource project:
Fork it, work on it locally and push.
Check issues and pull requests -> take up a project and announce and talk about it


my: git checkout master > git fetch > git merge origin/master > git checkout -b feedback_form > git commit -m “Add user” > git fetch > git push -u origin feedback_form
lynda: git checkout master > git fetch > git merge origin/master > git checkout -b feedback_form origin/feedback_form > git log > git show 84b6adf0 > git commit -am “Add tour to user” > git fetch > git push

Then me again:
git fetch > git log -p feedback_form..origin/feedback_form > git merge origin/feedback_form > git checkout master > git fetch > git merge origin/master > git merge feedback_form > git push

Git Alias(to type fewer key strokes):
st = status
co = checkout
ci = commit
br = branch
df = diff
dfs = diif –staged
logg = log –graph –decorate –oneline -all
you can put all it in cat ~/.gitconfig

git config –global status

Setup SSH keys for remote login

You find the more advanced course like: Git Intermediate Techniques( Git pruning branches, working with tags, applying patches, rebasing, cherry picking commits, squashing etc.

Git Rebase:

Merge vs Conflicts:

Solve conflict:

It would be a great help, if you support by sharing :)
Author: zakilive

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